The goal of it efforts are to learn the end result from breed and you may years towards egg manufacturing in addition to egg additional and internal top quality inside the four Italian twin-objective types , in the beginning and lots of months afterwards than just very first weeks laying craft that occurred, respectively, at the end of june/beginning of fall and also in winter, not as much as varying environmental criteria.
2.1. Pets and Rearing Criteria
Four Italian poultry types, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), webbplatser Robusta Maculata (RM) and you can Robusta Lionata (RL), had been believed into study. Your body lbs off mature women was step 1.twenty five kg for the PP, dos.29 kilogram inside Er and you will step three.05 kilogram from inside the RM and you may RL. Its resource is the Veneto part (Italy): PP is actually an old local breed; the resource is actually old returning to the new XIX century, but no accurate studies with the the hereditary source exist. The other types are built in Veneto inside 1950s: the newest Er breed arises from Sussex (shaded eggshell breed) and you will Rhode Isle (brownish eggshell reproduce) breeds, while for the RM and you can RL breeds, Brownish Orpington and you will Light The usa, a few brown eggshell types were used . Also the adult weight, this type of breeds differ within their plumage colour: it is fantastic inside PP, Er suggests erminate plumage, RM plumage is actually mostly light which have black colored extremities a number of nations of one’s muscles, black colored feathers of primaries and you may end and RL reveals a good tawny plumage which have black feathers of primaries and you may tail. All types (Contour S1) let you know single brush and you will set tinted eggshell eggs (Contour S2).
dos. Material and methods
Wild birds out-of per reproduce hatched at the same time (second half out-of e ranch of the Center for Poultry Biodiversity Maintenance about Veneto part (it consistently provides for the rearing ones breeds as well as for the eggs creation to own incubation and you will brooding), for the Northern Italy (45°02?53? N), off hatching into the pubertal ages and in the laying period, which started from the end away from june to your start of trip (Contour step one), depending on the reproduce. Serving, rearing criteria (photoperiod, temperature) and prophylaxis steps were the same towards the five breeds, since that time out-of hatching with the avoid of learned period, that has been in the , at 53 days old. The brand new newly hatched chicks was indeed leftover indoors into the earliest cuatro months out of lives, in the an environmental temperatures decreasing of 32 in order to 24 °C, not as much as infra-red rays lamps, on litter. From the 1.5 days of age, the fresh new birds received 100 % free accessibility outdoor areas, off spring season so you’re able to trip and cold weather. For every breed (60 hens) got free usage of outside (5 m dos /bird) area (equipped with linear drinkers), where hens lived for hours, and indoor (cuatro hens/m 2 ) space (timber shavings and you can straw litter, having perches and you can round feeders), used mainly to have installing egg (collective nests) at nights; the bedroom (interior and backyard) accessible to for every breed try separated by the netting.
At the outset of putting (at about twenty-two days of age on breed with earlier onset of installing), inside September–Oct, according to breed, the new photoperiod is actually pure and you will coming down, according to year therefore the geographic standing of your own demonstration channel inside the Northern Italy (normally, 12L:12D), and for the next period (off 38 days old, of December to help you 53 months of age), fake light is actually gradually enhanced (inside interior space, incandescent bulb, about sixty lux) to track down a great photoperiod away from 14L:10D. The photoperiod was managed by the a timekeeper, also it is accomplished by switching on brand new white one hour before dawn and you can shutting off they one hour after sundown. The newest external environment heat try 10 ± step three.4 °C and eleven ± 3.0 °C, correspondingly, with the very first (right away out of Oct into the prevent regarding November) together with 2nd (right from the start off January toward avoid off February) laying symptoms, in the event the studies on give performance and you may eggs top quality was in fact accumulated. The brand new pets were given post libitum commercial feeds based on the physiological phase (three diversified commercial feeds into the growing period). On first putting phase (26–33 months old, lower than coming down pure photoperiod), if the breeds already been laying, this new birds received a professional pelleted offer (PG = 16%, Myself = eleven.8 MJ/kg, California = step one.1%, P = 0.6%) and you will maize (PG = nine.1%, Me = thirteen.eight MJ/kg), at the a proportion of 1:step one. It’s worthy of recalling one to, at this years, precisely the twin-mission and you will tinted eggshell breeds showed a varying start of installing and you may egg production speed, whereas the newest hens from the other varieties of the fresh new Conservation Center getting Biodiversity and you may hatched meanwhile of the examined types, for instance the white eggshell breeds, failed to begin installing (Padovana reproduce) or it demonstrated a very scant installing hobby (Polverara breed), never attaining the endurance out of 10% hen–time eggs creation. The cause of the option of the fresh new Maintenance Middle, never to fool around with a rss feed to possess installing hens through the this era, is actually due to not pressuring the brand new pullets so you’re able to egg manufacturing during the a month which have coming down temperature and photoperiod. The fresh new wild birds became external, less than beneficial conditions for skeletal health, walking on crushed and you may under solar radiation. From the back yard for every single reproduce, the existence of grass available to the wild birds was large during the the brand new broadening months than simply from the start of putting, hence taken place pursuing the summer-time, when the rain was scarce and you can did not allow for a turf regrowth. Off 38 to help you 53 weeks old, and not as much as expanding photoperiod, new hens was in fact given a professional pelleted feed to own installing (PG = 16%, Myself = 11.5 MJ/kilogram, Ca = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). Every feeds comprised mainly out-of maize and you may soybean.